Edited by Pat Bitton
September 25, 2020
MKV vs. MP4: Which One Should You Choose?
MP4 and Matroska Video (MKV) are two of the most popular video file formats. They're equally good in video quality. So, what's the difference between MKV and MP4? Is MKV better than MP4, or the other way around? That depends on how you use your video files and what software you use them with.
If, after reading the article, you decide to change the format of your files, consider using video converter by Movavi. Check out the video below if you want to know more about the program.
MKV vs. MP4: A Brief Format Comparison
|Description||MP4 was developed by the Moving Picture Experts Group. The format supports the H.264 video codec as well as many others. The format is supported by the majority of modern devices.||MKV, or Matroska Video, is a video format that stores several audio and subtitle tracks in one file. It’s widely popular for storing movies.|
|File Size||Relatively small.||Relatively small (however, it may get bigger if there are too many audio tracks).|
|Streaming||Easy to stream (supports both the HLS and MPEG-DASH streaming protocols).||Hard to stream.|
|Compatible Video Editors||More video editors that support MP4||More video editors that support MKV|
What Are MP4 and MKV?
The first thing to understand is that MP4 and MKV are both container formats. Most multimedia formats have two aspects. The container format defines the file's structure. It contains one or more streams, along with information about how to play them. It can also contain metadata such as the title, copyright holder, and creation date.
The encoding of the video data is defined by a codec. Explicitly storing every pixel of every frame of a high-definition movie would require outrageous amounts of storage. Software developers have devised many schemes to compress the video without visible degradation, so there are many competing codecs. Most containers, including MP4 and MKV, support a choice of codecs.
This is why it's a mistake to ask which container format has better video quality. It's the codec, not the container, that determines the quality, and you can often use the same codec with either container. Features, compatibility, and implementation make the difference in choosing MKV or MP4.
MP4 is shorthand for MPEG-4, Part 14. It's part of the Moving Picture Experts Group's standards for audio and video files. Version 1 came out in 2001, and Version 2 in 2003.
The term is sometimes loosely used for other parts of the MPEG-4 standard. It's based on Apple's QuickTime format, without a lot of changes. The format is an ISO standard, ISO/IEC 14496-14:2003.
Many codecs are officially registered for MP4, and others can be used privately. However, most implementations support only a few of them. The most widely supported are H.264 (which is the same as MPEG-4, Part 10) and H.265. Other codecs can be downloaded and added to the software.
The container accepts other media besides video, including audio and still images. MP4 audio can use various encodings, including AAC.
MP4 files can incorporate DRM (digital rights management). This effectively means encrypting the content. No single DRM method is used everywhere, so several versions will be necessary to reach the widest audience. Converting DRM-protected video is difficult or impossible.
The MP4 specifications are available to the public. Some aspects are covered by software patents, but no one is currently requiring license fees. Distributing software for H.264 and H.265 encoding and decoding may require a license fee.
If you want to know more about the MP4 format, follow the link below:
A detailed article about the MP4 file format
The most important difference between MP4 and MKV is philosophical. MP4 is a proprietary format controlled by MPEG. Some of its workings are patented. The Matroska container is based on an open specification. Nothing in it is known to be patented. It's unlikely any patent claims on it will arise now, almost two decades after its introduction.
No license is required to distribute MP4 files. However, a license may be required to create and distribute software to create the files. There are no licensing requirements for software that creates or modifies MKV files. As a result, open-source software is more widely available for MKV. The Matroska group provides a free software library, and others are available.
Like MP4, Matroska can hold video, audio, and other content types. Files with video content use the extension, .mkv; audio files use .mka, and 3D video files use .mk3d. The container format is the same in all cases. In addition, a file can have attachments in any format.
Matroska has a general encryption capability that can be used for DRM. The MKV container uses a block-oriented structure, and blocks are individually encrypted. This means that software can discern the structure of a DRM-protected file and perform some operations on it.
MKV and WebM
Matroska MKV is designed to do almost anything, so it's rather complicated. Many Web browsers support WebM, which is a restricted version of MKV. The most important restriction is in the allowed video codecs. WebM video uses only the VP8 and VP9 codecs, which are open and royalty-free. All WebM files are MKV files, but not all MKV files are consistent with WebM. Support in current browsers for WebM is about as widespread as support for MP4, but older versions may not support WebM.
The Advantages of MP4
Should your choice be MP4 or MKV, or should you use both? MP4 offers several benefits.
- It has broad support in browsers, operating systems, and commercial software. In combination with H.264 encoding, it provides high-quality video for the large majority of operating systems. Full MKV isn't viable if you want to stream video to a Web browser.
- MP4 files are smaller than equivalent MKV files. A smaller size means quicker downloads as well as savings in storage.
- The format has the backing of an industry association and has gone through the scrutiny to make it an ISO standard. Matroska's specifications are still considered works in progress, even though the format has been around for years.
- The players delivered by mobile device manufacturers are far more likely to support MP4 than MKV.
The Advantages of MKV
While MP4 has clear strengths, so does MKV.
- It's an open format with no licensing requirements, so it's better supported in free software.
- It allows almost any kind of codec. In many cases, you'll need to get the codecs from a third party.
- Support in MKV for some features, including multiple tracks and subtitles, is better than in MP4.
- The odds of long-term retention are better with MKV, provided you make the right choices. The format's fully open nature counts in its favor, and attachments can make files self-documenting. Long-term archives should use only well-known codecs and attachment formats, though.
The Final MP4 vs. MKV Score
In the contest of MP4 vs. MKV, there's no clear winner. Each format is better for some use cases, not quite as good for others. MP4 is more widely supported for playing video on a browser, and it has less file overhead. MKV is more popular for converting DVDs and Blu-Ray discs to video files.
The important factor for video quality in MKV vs. MP4 isn't the container but the codec. MKV supports more codecs, so it makes more options available. You need to make sure, though, that a reliable codec is available for the software you're using. In particular, if you favor VP9, Google's cutting-edge codec, you should go with MKV (or its WebM subset) rather than with MP4.
The software you have for creating videos may dictate the format you initially create. However, you may be able to get an add-on to have it create files in your preferred format. Alternatively, you can convert the file after creating it or perform video compression. If you're going to distribute the video, there are advantages to having it in multiple formats. Movavi Video Converter will make it easy for you to move videos from one format to the other.
Frequently Asked Questions
The quality of a video mostly depends not on the format, but the video codec. Currently, the codec that allows for the best video quality with a reasonable compression rate is H.264. Since both MP4 and MKV support the H.264 video codec, they’re both equally good. So, if you’re choosing between these two formats, we suggest you base your decision not on the quality of the resulting footage (it should be excellent in both cases) but on the device you’re going to use for the playback. MP4 is better for smartphones and tablets, while MKV works excellent on computer players like VLC.
MP4 is one of the top video formats in the industry. It can use the H.264 video compression codec, which allows for good compression while retaining the high quality of the source video. Since the codec and the format are free for everyone, almost any device and website can use and/or play MP4 files. It’s hard to find a format that could be better than this one.
However, what’s best for you may be different from what’s best for everyone in general. If your player or device cannot read MP4s, you can convert your videos to a different format. To choose the one that suits you, read the specifications to your player or device.
It depends on how you want to use the video files. If you’re going to play them on your computer with VLC or a different video player, the MKV format will give you the desired combination of good quality and relatively small file size. If you want to watch the videos from a device or upload them to YouTube or a different video-hosting website, choose MP4. This format is universal.
Yes, it’s possible to convert MKV to MP4. Try Movavi Video Converter! To learn how to convert videos from MKV to MP4 with this software, follow the link below.
Movavi Video Converter
The ideal way to get your media in the format you need!
- Convert video, audio, DVDs, and image files
- Enjoy lightning-fast conversion without quality loss
- Improve quality, adjust sound, trim and join files before converting
- Save video and audio clips for easy mobile access